NDE Techniques

Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) encompasses a wide range of techniques that allow engineers and inspectors to assess the integrity and quality of materials, components, and structures without causing damage. These techniques play a vital role in various industries, ensuring safety, reliability, and efficiency. Here are some of the most commonly used NDE techniques:

  1. Ultrasonic Testing (UT)
  2. Ultrasonic waves are propagated into the material being inspected. The waves interact with internal structures and defects, producing echoes that are analysed to identify flaws such as cracks, voids, and delaminations.

  3. Radiography
  4. X-rays or gamma rays are used to create images of the internal structure of objects. Variations in thickness, density, or defects result in different exposure levels on a film or digital detector.

  5. Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI)
  6. Ferromagnetic materials are magnetised, and magnetic particles are applied to the surface. The particles are attracted to areas with magnetic flux leakage, highlighting surface defects like cracks.

  7. Eddy Current Testing (ECT)
  8. Eddy currents are induced in conductive materials, and changes in conductivity due to defects are detected and analysed. It is effective for detecting surface and near-surface flaws.

  9. Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT)
  10. A liquid penetrant is applied to the surface of a material, and the excess penetrant is removed. A developer is then applied, causing the penetrant trapped in defects to be drawn out, indicating their presence.

  11. Visual Inspection (VI)
  12. A basic but essential technique involving direct observation of the material or component for visible defects, anomalies, or irregularities

  13. Acoustic Emission Testing
  14. Acoustic signals emitted during stress or deformation of a material are monitored. These signals indicate the presence of defects or damage, allowing for structural health monitoring.

  15. Thermography
  16. Infrared radiation is used to visualise temperature variations on the surface of an object. This method is effective in identifying defects that cause temperature anomalies.

  17. Guided Wave Testing (GWT)
  18. Long-range ultrasonic waves are used to inspect large structures or pipes, providing coverage over considerable distances.

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Application Notes