WELDING INSPECTOR KNOWLEDGES:
The Welding Inspector must be a high skilled technician or engineer with a good knowledge of general industry manufacture, materials, quality systems, inspection procedures and Standards and Specifications for welding as:
- Standard organizations as ASTM, SAE, AISI, AWS, ASME and other institutions;
- Metals metallurgy, hardness tests and heat treatment;
- Materials properties, destructive testing and NDT methods; Terminology, weld joint geometry and welding symbols;
- Welding equipment, metal joining and cutting processes;
- Application of procedures, records, welding inspection and qualifications;
- Evaluation of weld and base metal discontinuities;
- Metric and conversion practices;
- Safe welding practices;
1. Standards and Specifications for welding:
The professional and industrial organizations in the United States that lead the development of standards include: the ASTM International, the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), the American Iron and Steel Institution (AISI), the American Welding Society (AWS) and the ASME International.
Many specifications have also been developed by US government agencies such as the Department of Defense (DOD). However, the US government is revising its specification and many specifications are being controlled by diverse industrial groups.
The MIL-I-25135 has historically been the controlling document for military uses, but recent change in military specification management, was incorporated into SAE’s AMS 2644.
Thousands of standard specifications are recognized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), which is a national, private, coordinating agency.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) also performs this function, formed in 1947, as a non-governmental federation of standardization bodies from over 60 countries.
The links of the specification organizations are indicated below:
ASTM standards: Founded in 1898, ASTM International is a not-for-profit organization that provides a global forum for the development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for materials, products, systems, and services.
The American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM International provides standards that are accepted and used in research and development, product testing, quality systems, and commercial transactions around the globe.
Over 30,000 individuals from 100 nations are the members of ASTM International, who are producers, users, consumers, and representatives of government. In over 130 varied industry areas, ASTM standards serve as the basis for manufacturing, procurement, and regulatory activities.
Each year, ASTM publishes the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, which consists of approximately 70 volumes. Most of the NDT related documents can be found in Volume 03.03, Nondestructive Testing. E-03.03 is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-7.
Each standard practice or guide is the direct responsibility of a subcommittee. For example, document E-94 is the responsibility of subcommittee E07.01 on Radiology (x and gamma) Methods.
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE):
SAE standards: The Society of Automotive Engineers is a professional society that serves as resource for technical information used in designing, building, maintaining, and operating self-propelled vehicles for use on land or sea, in air or space.
Over 83,000 engineers, business executives, educators, and students from more than 97 countries form the memberships who share information for advancing the engineering of mobile systems. SAE is responsible for developing several different documents for the aerospace community.
These documents include: Aerospace Standards (AS), Aerospace Material Specifications (AMS), Aerospace Recommended Practices (ARP), Aerospace Information Reports (AIR) and Ground Vehicle Standards (J-Standards).
The documents are developed by SAE Committee K members, which are technical experts from the aerospace community.
ASME International was founded in 1880 as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. It is a nonprofit educational and technical organization serving a worldwide membership of 125,000.
ASME maintains and distributes 600 codes and standards used around the world for the design, manufacturing and installation of mechanical devices. One of these codes is called the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
This code controls the design, inspection, and repair of pressure vessels. Inspection plays a big part in keeping the components operating safely. More information about the B&PV Code can be found at the links to the left.
The American Welding Society:
The American Welding Society (AWS) was founded in 1919 as a multifaceted, nonprofit organization with a goal to advance the science, technology and application of welding and related joining disciplines.
AWS serves 50,000 members worldwide. Membership consists of engineers, scientists, educators, researchers, welders, inspectors, welding foremen, company executives and officers, and sales associates.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO):
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) was formed in 1947 as a non-governmental federation of standardization bodies from over 60 countries.
The ISO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The Unites States is represented by the ANSI.
The Aerospace Industries Association:
The Aerospace Industries Association represents the nation’s major manufacturers of commercial, military and business aircraft, helicopters, aircraft engines, missiles, spacecraft, materials, and related components and equipment.
The AIA has been an aerospace industry trade association since 1919. It was originally known as the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce (ACCA). The AIA is responsible for two NDT related documents, which are:
NAS 410, Certification & Qualification Of Nondestructive Test Personnel. This document is widely used in the aerospace industry as it replaces MIL-STD-410E:
Military Standard, Nondestructive Testing Personnel Qualification and Certification. NAS 999, Nondestructive Inspection of Advanced Composite Structure.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI):
ANSI is a private, nonprofit organization that administers and coordinates the US voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system.
The Institute’s mission is to enhance both the global competitiveness of US business and the US quality of life by promoting and facilitating voluntary consensus standards and conformity assessment systems, and safeguarding their integrity.
The American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT):
The American Society for Nondestructive Testing offers certification in NDT, with membership over 12,000, including affiliation more than 500 companies.
With ASNT comes access to thousands of NDT practitioners throughout the world working in manufacturing, construction, education, research, consulting, services and the military. NDT Certifications according to ASNT/SNT-TC-1A.
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