Published on 19-Apr-2024

A Guide to understanding How Radiography Testing Happens

A Guide to understanding How Radiography Testing Happens

Sources - MME Group

Table of Content

Amongst the NDT methods, Radiographic testing procedures are used to detect any flaws or defects in the core structure of any machine or its components. The radiography test procedure makes use of either of the two rays which are x-rays or gamma rays to create a radiograph of the test sample that indicates if there are any deviations in thickness, faults, or defects and assembly specifics to make certain optimal conditions.

In the Radiography Test procedure, the component to be tested is put between the source of radiation and a detector that is a film. The variation in the density of the material and its thickness will reduce the piercing radiation with the help of interaction processes involving dispersion and/or absorption. This variation in absorption is then documented on the film or with the aid of an electric device.

Radiography Testing Process

There are various imaging NDT Techniques available specifically for use in industrial radiography including Computed Tomography, Film Radiography, Computed Radiography, Real-Time Radiography, and Digital Radiography. As discussed above, two distinct sources of radiation exist for industrial purposes Gamma-rays and X-rays. These sources of radiation utilize a high level of energy that is a shorter wavelength, types of electromagnetic waves.

Computed Tomography is an advanced technique used in Non-destructive Testing that is lab-based. It utilizes Radiographic Testing Principles that give both three-dimensional volume images and cross-sectional images of the test component that require to be assessed exclusively of intrinsic overlay associated with two-dimensional radiography. This specific attribute permits a thorough examination of the core structure of an extensive range of components. 

Radiographic Testing Procedures are widely used in testing the quality of welds in the industry. The radiography test procedure in welding is a majorly reliable testing method to identify flaws or defects in the weld such as voids, porosity, cracks, inclusions, and so on inside the weld. Due to the high reliability and trustworthiness of the Radiographic testing procedures, they are used across various industries comprise Automotive Industry, offshore, power generation, aerospace, manufacturing, transport, oil and gas, petrochemical, marine, and military.

Radiographic Testing Principle

Radiography Testing Process

William Roentgen discovered the process of radiographic testing in 1895. It was soon applicable in the area of medicine and consequently used for industrial components. It is based on the idea that radiation spreads out and absorbs as it passes across an object in radiographic testing.

Depending on the differences in density or thickness because of the flaw in the component, less or more radiation moves across and has an effect on the film exposure. These flaws can be observed in the film, generally in the form of dark spots.

In radiographic Testing procedures, a portion of the machine or its components is placed between the radiation source and a part of the sensitive detector or film. As soon as the radiation is initiated in the form of an x-ray or gamma-ray, the part that is being tested will obstruct some of the radiation with its material thickness and density. Denser and thicker material will reduce the amount of radiation that will pass through the sample.

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An electronic device or a film will note the amount of radiation, which is known as a radiograph. The radiograph contacts the film with the help of the NDT test sample. The data obtained from the radiograph will enable the NDT technician to identify the defects easily. If the component is in good shape, without any flaws, the radiation will uniformly pass across the material.

The flawed material will absorb some of the radiation that goes through it due to a change in density. Any kind of defect in the source metal will lessen its density. Therefore, it transfers radiation in a better manner than a solid metal. Consequently, the Radiographic Film seems to be darker at the part subjected to any defects.

The power of penetration by the rays is dependent on the energy of the radiation. The high-energy radiation will be more likely to penetrate denser and thicker material. To ensure safety, local rules must be firmly obeyed, as the high-energy gamma-rays and x-rays are extremely radioactive. According to Radiographic Testing Principles, in Radiographic Testing, flaws are identified by utilising the disparity in the thickness of the material.

The major drawback of short wavelength radiation is ionising, which means it can bring about chemical shifts in the human body. All the ionising radiation is unsafe, as even a minimal amount can lead to genetic damage and strengthen the likelihood of cancer. Rigorous safety provisions are required while using the radiography test procedure. This turns out to be rather disruptive, costly, and time-consuming.

Radiography Test Procedure