Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a testing and analysis technique used by industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component, structure, or system for characteristic differences or welding defects and discontinuities without causing damage to the original part. NDT is also known as non-destructive examination (NDE), non-destructive inspection (NDI), and Non-destructive evaluation (NDE).
As we know, non-destructive testing can generally be split into two areas: surface techniques and sub-surface techniques. These techniques are then categorized into various testing methods such as visual testing, liquid penetrant testing, acoustic emission testing, leak testing, radiography, ultrasonic testing, magnetic particle testing, eddy-current testing, vibration analysis, thermal/infrared testing, and laser testing.
Let’s have a look at the points which differentiate them from each other.
Oldest forms of testing
Can check for damage including cracks, corrosion, and misalignment
Liquid Penetrant Testing
Flexible technique used in the aviation industry
Can detect surface defects and structural damage in non-porous materials
Acoustic Emission Testing
An abrupt force is used
Leaks and active corrosion can be detected
Involves pressurizing & immersing the test object in a liquid
detects gas (usually air) leaking from the test piece in the form of bubbles.
can use both x-rays for thin materials and gamma rays for thicker materials
To show discontinuities in the testing object
uses high-frequency sound waves to locate defects
conduct examinations and measurements on a test area
Magnetic Particle Testing
involves inducing a magnetic field in the test object
find discontinuities at or near the surface of ferromagnetic materials
induces an electromagnetic field in a conductive test object
measures the secondary magnetic field generated around the electric current
used to monitor the vibration signatures generated by a rotating piece of machinery
mapping the surface temperatures of an object
used to detect damage such as corrosion, delamination, voids, and disbonds
Laser Testing Methods
Useful in detecting tiny flaws
use laser light in different ways to detect deformation on the surface of objects and computer processing to compare stressed and unstressed conditions
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