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Industrial radiography is used for a variety of applications but is commonly performed using two different sources of radiation, X-Ray and Gamma ray sources. The choice of radiation sources and their strength depends on a variety of factors including size of the component and the material thickness. Within the broad group of X-Ray and Gamma ray sources are a variety of camera choices with varying radiation strengths. Tester Lab Services X-Ray capabilities run the X-Ray from 4 MEV units utilized to radiograph extremely large and thick castings and forgings, to portable X-Ray machine used for field weld applications and thin wall material inspection. Gamma sources vary from very low level fluoroscopic units to perform real time corrosion under insulation surveys, to Iridium (Ir192) and Selenium (Se 75) sources used for a variety of weld inspections, to Cobalt (Co 60) inspections for thick component testing.
In most common UT applications, very short ultrasonic pulse-waves with center frequencies ranging from 0.1-15 MHz, and occasionally up to 50 MHz, are transmitted into materials to detect internal flaws or to characterize materials. It is used in many industries including steel and aluminum, construction, metallurgy, manufacturing, aerospace, automotive &other transportation sectors. In service ultrasonic testing for preventive maintenance is used for detecting impending failure of rail road rolling stock axles, press columns, earth-moving equipment, mill rolls, mining equipment and other machines and components. The flaws to be detected include voids, cracks, inclusions, pipe, laminations, bursts and flakes. They may be inherent in the raw materials, may result from fabrication and heat treatment, or may occur in service from fatigue, corrosion or other causes. Ultrasonic testing can also be used to measure thickness of metal sections during manufacturing and maintenance inspections.
Magnetic Particle Testing
It is a non-destructive testing (NDT) process for detecting surface and slightly subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials such as iron, nickel, cobalt, and some of their alloys. The process puts a magnetic field into the part. The piece can be magnetized by direct or indirect magnetization
Direct magnetization occurs when the electric current is passed through the test object and a magnetic field is formed in the material
Indirect magnetization occurs when no electric current is passed through the test object, but a magnetic field is applied from an outside source
Dry Particle Inspection
In this magnetic particle testing technique, dry particles are dusted onto the surface of the test object as the item is magnetized. Dry particle inspection is well suited for the inspections conducted on rough surfaces. When an electromagnetic yoke is used, the AC or half wave DC current creates a pulsating magnetic field that provides mobility to the powder. The primary applications for dry powders are unground welds and rough as-cast surfaces. Dry particle inspection is also used to detect shallow subsurface cracks. Dry particles with half wave DC is the best approach when inspecting for lack of root penetration in welds of thin materials. Half wave DC with prods and dry particles is commonly used when inspecting large castings for hot tears and cracks.
Wet Suspension Inspection
Wet suspension magnetic particle inspection, more commonly known as wet magnetic particle inspection, involves applying the particles while they are suspended in a liquid carrier. Wet magnetic particle inspection is most commonly performed using a stationary, wet, horizontal inspection unit but suspensions are also available in spray cans for use with an electromagnetic yoke. A wet inspection has several advantages over a dry inspection. First, all of the surfaces of the component can be quickly and easily covered with a relatively uniform layer of particles. Second, the liquid carrier provides mobility to the particles for an extended period of time, which allows enough particles to float to small leakage fields to form a visible indication. Therefore, wet inspection is considered best for detecting very small discontinuities on smooth surfaces. On rough surfaces, however, the particles can settle in the surface valleys and lose mobility, rendering them less effective than dry powders under these conditions.